Gallo played a key role in identifying the cause and detection
of one of the most serious medical scourges of the 20th century.
Gallo, a veteran of years of research on cancer, helped determine
that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) caused the fatal condition
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, commonly called AIDS. Pursuing
research also done by French scientist Luc Montagnier, Gallo helped
develop a laboratory test to detect HIV; this test proved essential
to diagnose the syndrome and to protect the world's blood supply
from the growing threat of HIV contamination. Recognized as a
pioneering influence in the field of virology, Gallo's other contributions
include discoveries that led to diagnostic and therapeutic advances
in cancer and several other viral diseases.
in Waterbury, Connecticut, Gallo earned a B.S. in biology from
Providence College in 1959. He earned his M.D. from Jefferson
Medical College in Philadelphia in 1963, then did an internship
and residency in medicine at the University of Chicago before
becoming a cancer researcher for the National Cancer Institute.
Among many other awards, Gallo is a two-time winner of the prestigious
Albert Lasker Award and was the most cited scientist of the decade
of the 1980s.